Advances in the microanalysis of major, minor, and trace elements of glass shards are reviewed. We then document and appraise recent advances in analytical methods used to determine the major, minor, and trace elements of individual glass shards from tephra or cryptotephra deposits to aid their correlation and application. Protocols developed recently for the electron probe microanalysis of major elements in individual glass shards help to improve data quality and standardize reporting procedures. In undertaking analyses, either by microprobe or LA-ICP-MS, reference material data acquired using the same procedure, and preferably from the same analytical session, should be presented alongside new analytical data. In part 2 of the review, we describe, critically assess, and recommend ways in which tephras or cryptotephras can be correlated in conjunction with other information using numerical or statistical analyses of compositional data. They enable a better understanding of relationships among the data from multiple viewpoints to be developed and help quantify the degree of uncertainty in establishing correlations. In common with other scientific hypothesis testing, it is easier to infer using such analysis that two or more tephras are different rather than the same. Adding stratigraphic, chronological, spatial, or palaeoenvironmental data i.
Is glass liquid or solid?
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Published on May 19th, By: Eileen De Guire Are you sure you wish to continue? Once humans discovered that clay could be dug up and formed into objects by first mixing with water and then firing, the industry was born. As early as 24, BC, animal and human figurines were made from clay and other materials, then fired in kilns partially dug into the ground. Almost 10, years later, as settled communities were established, tiles were manufactured in Mesopotamia and India.
The first use of functional pottery vessels for storing water and food is thought to be around or 10, BC. Clay bricks were also made around the same time. Glass was believed to be discovered in Egypt around BC, when overheating of kilns produced a colored glaze on the pottery. Experts estimate that it was not until BC that glass was produced independently of ceramics and fashioned into separate items.
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Orval Abbey Evidence of brewing goes back to the earliest days of the monastery. A document written by the abbot in directly refers to the consumption of beer and wine by the monks. The last of the brewers to be a monk was Brother Pierre, up until the fire. In the present day brewery was built, employing lay people and intended to provide a source of funds for the monastery reconstruction.
It was designed by Henry Vaes, who also designed the distinctive Orval beer glass. The first beer was shipped from the brewery on 7 May , and was sold in barrels rather than the bottles of today. Orval was the first Trappist beer to be sold nationally around Belgium. As with other Trappist breweries, the beer is sold in order to financially support the monastery and some other good causes.
All of the profits from the sale of the beer are distributed to charities and for community development around the region. It was first made in , and has a complex and unusual flavor and aroma produced by a unique strain of yeast: The beer is light in color, slightly cloudy, and has a large, foamy head. There is a complex aroma of leather, spice, and many other earthy components. Beer critic Michael Jackson considered Orval to be “a wonderful aperitif”, and a “world classic”.
One of these is the use of dry hopping , in which large meshed bags of hops infuse the beer during the three-week maturation period.
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Original by Philip Gibbs October , with thanks to many who contributed their knowledge and references. Is glass liquid or solid? It is sometimes said that glass in very old churches is thicker at the bottom than at the top because glass is a liquid, and so over several centuries it has flowed towards the bottom. This is not true.
In Mediaeval times panes of glass were often made by the Crown glass process.
Some glass, such as pressed glass, can be identified by the pattern. Since certain patterns were made at different times in the 19th century it can be quite easy to find the exact date of your piece. Of course reproductions are still made so there is a chance the glass is new or vintage (less than years old but more than 60 years old).
Base codes on Owens-Illinois amber glass handled jug, or date code, made at factory B was jug style number. See list of 19 currently operating glass container plants in North America, farther down on this page. Most of the pics show the first and most widely recognized mark used beginning in As pictured, it can vary slightly from one container to another. Latest confirmed date code with this older trademark known on a bottle is On the typical bottle, there is usually a number to the left of, to the right of, and below, the trademark.
Several of the plant numbers used by O-I have been re-used by other plants opened in later years, so it is important to take into consideration the date code, the bottle style and other characteristics to positively identify which plant location made a particular bottle. Most bottles from the late s into the s and s have two-digit date codes. For more info, please check out the extensive article by Bill Lockhart and Russ Hoenig; link farther down on this page.
The second mark was phased in during the s with the removal of the diamond. Some bottle molds already in use were not re-engraved until as late as , , , even, as mentioned, in
Each of the pictured bottles has a relatively short description and explanation including estimated dates or date ranges for that type bottle and links to other view pictures of the bottle. Additional links to images of similar bottles are also frequently included. The array of references used to support the conclusions and estimates found here – including the listed dating ranges – are noted.
As Berge noted in referring to bottles, the ” This bottle dating “key” is a relatively simple “first cut” on the dating of a bottle. Please be aware that in order to gain the maximum information about any particular bottle e. Unfortunately, the complexities of precisely dating bottles is beyond the scope of any simple key. A substantial amount of bottle type specific information must be reviewed by a user to increase the probability of dating accuracy.
Additional reference materials outside of this website must often be consulted to narrow down the date of any item as far as is possible and to really get a “feel” for the history of the bottle in question. The information on this website will, however, usually produce a reliable manufacturing date range for a majority of American utilitarian bottles manufactured from the early s to the mid th century.
For the first time user of this site it is highly recommended that the following information be read prior to using the key below. First this cautionary note: Bottle dating is not a precise science! Using physical, manufacturing related diagnostic features, most utilitarian bottles can usually only be accurately placed within a date range of years i.
There are numerous reasons for this: Like many industries making the leap from manual craftsman production to industrialization and automation, technological advances in bottle manufacturing were not immediately accepted by glass manufacturers or their workers.
History of Ceramics
We all have old family photos. These may be loose or in albums or they may be in the form of postcards or even fragile black and grey glass negatives. So what about dating? Photography started in but at that time was really in the hands of a few scientists, professionals or wealthy amateurs. Not many family photographs exist from that era unless they are beautiful images on a polished silver plate that looks like a mirror. These are daguerreotypes as invented by Daguerre in France.
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History[ edit ] The word hauberk is derived from the Old Frankish word halsberg,  which originally described a small piece of mail that protects “bergen”, literally “to give protection, to save, to rescue” the throat and the neck the “Hals”. The Roman author Varro attributes the invention of mail to the Celts. Roman armies adopted similar technology after encountering it. Mail armour spread throughout the Mediterranean Basin with the expansion of the Romans.
It was quickly adopted by virtually every iron-using culture in the world, with the exception of the Chinese. The Chinese used it rarely, despite being heavily exposed to it from other cultures. The widespread opinion that the short-hemmed, short-sleeved hauberk may have originated from the medieval Islamic world  is challenged by the fact that mail shirts of nearly the same design as Medieval ones were already known to the Romans.
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Vivid color contrast is the beauty of exquisite Edo cut glass Edo Kiriko is a glass craft that has been handed down in Tokyo. In Edo present-day Tokyo in , Kyubei Kagaya started exploring the technique of cutting patterns into the surface of glass. Edo Kiriko was fosterd in the urban culture among the townspeople, and during the Meiji era mid th century , the craft introduced not only Western equipment and instruments, but also their technique while preserving traditional techniques and has been passed down to the present time.
First of all, an expert glassblower blows clear glass into a paper-thin shape of colored glass and then rotates this in the air to make the overall form. The result is a two-layer structure with colored glass on the outside and clear glass on the inside.
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How to date Kosta Boda glass – date codes, series and designer signatures. Dating Kosta Glass Art glass pieces by Kosta are usually signed. However, most production glass is not signed, even if the design comes from a renown designer or artist. There was no uniform way of signing different pieces or series. This difference with Orrefors in the way items are signed and dated can be explained by the different approaches and types of partnerships that the two glassworks had with their artists.
Whereas Orrefors usually had a long relationship with their artists and designers, Kosta frequently invited artists to work with them only for a short time. Notable exception is Elis Berg, who worked for Kosta from to When Lindstrand started to work with Kosta, he implemented a more or less uniform way of signing and dating all pieces of work, much like it was the practice at Orrefors.
The information about signatures and date codes for Kosta Boda glass is sketchy to say the least, since even the company archives only have scant information on this subject. This obviously makes decoding Kosta Boda glass even more trickier. This page tries to give an overview of all date codes, series codes and signatures that should allow dating most of Kosta Boda’s glass.
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Identifying any antique glass is simple. First, see if the glass is marked, finding a mark is the first thing to look for when buying ANY antique, period. Many times the mark may be very faint, so use the reflection of the light you are using to aid you. If you’ve found a mark, great!
The Hemingray Glass Company operated between and was the largest manufacturer of glass insulators in the world. This web site is dedicated to providing information on every insulator style made by Hemingray.
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How to Date Antique Glass Bottles By John Peterson ; Updated April 12, Dating antique bottles requires knowledge of the evolution of bottle technology and the ability to research manufacturers and bottling companies. Although glass bottles have been made for a few thousand years, it was not until the 19th century that bottle use became common, coinciding with the industrial revolution. By the mid th century, embossed lettering and marking on bottle bodies and bases, denoting manufacturers and products, made more precise dating possible.
In addition to technology, products and manufacturers, certain types of glass colors will also aid in dating.
Owens-Illinois Glass Company was the result of the merger between two glass-making giants of the industry: Owens Bottle Company (Toledo, OH; predecessor Toledo Glass Company began operation in ) and Illinois Glass Company (based in Alton, Illinois, with glass production dating from ).
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